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dc.contributor.author Pellis, Sergio M.
dc.contributor.author Pellis, Vivien C.
dc.contributor.author Pelletier, Amanda
dc.contributor.author Leca, Jean-Baptiste
dc.date.accessioned 2022-06-02T20:45:47Z
dc.date.available 2022-06-02T20:45:47Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.citation Pellis, S. M., Pellis, V. C., Pelletier, A., & Leca, J.-B. (2019). Is play a behavior system, and, if so, what kind? Behavioural Processes, 160, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.011 en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10133/6231
dc.description Open access article. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) applies en_US
dc.description.abstract Given that many behavior patterns cluster together in sequences that are organized to solve specific problems (e.g., foraging), a fruitful perspective within which to study behaviors is as distinct ‘behavior systems’. Unlike many behavior systems that are widespread (e.g., anti-predator behavior, foraging, reproduction), behavior that can be relegated as playful is diverse, involving behavior patterns that are typically present in other behavior systems, sporadic in its phylogenetic distribution and relatively rare, suggesting that play is not a distinct behavior system. Yet the most striking and complex forms of play have the organizational integrity that suggests that it is a behavior system. One model that we develop in this paper, involves three stages of evolutionary transition to account for how the former can evolve into the latter. First, play-like behavior emerges from the incomplete development of other, functional behavior systems in some lineages. Second, in some of those lineages, the behavior patterns typical of particular behavior systems (e.g., foraging) are reorganized, leading to the evolution of specific ‘play behavior systems’. Third, some lineages that have independently evolved more than one such play behavior system, coalesce these into a ‘super system’, allowing some animals to combine behavior patterns from different behavior systems during play. Alternative models are considered, but irrespective of the model, the overall message from this paper is that the conceptual framework of the behavior system approach can provide some new insights into the organization and diversity of play present in the animal kingdom. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.subject Social play en_US
dc.subject Object play en_US
dc.subject Locomotor-rotational play en_US
dc.subject Behavior systems en_US
dc.subject Mechanisms en_US
dc.subject Functions en_US
dc.subject Evolutionary history en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Play behavior in animals
dc.subject.lcsh Animal behavior
dc.title Is play a behavior system, and, if so, what kind? en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.publisher.faculty Arts and Science en_US
dc.publisher.department Department of Neuroscience en_US
dc.publisher.department Department of Psychology en_US
dc.description.peer-review Yes en_US
dc.publisher.institution University of Lethbridge en_US
dc.publisher.url https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.011 en_US


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